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Town Planning (TP) Scheme  
Information on Town Planning Scheme No : 01/2015 - BDA 
(a part of Paikarapur Mouzas Sijuput, Naragoda, Sahajpur)
Utilizing Land as a resource for the infrastructure Planning & management
 through Legal Tool of Town Planning Scheme Mechanism

The Challenges of Urbanization
Bhubaneshwar and other towns of Odisha state face a truly tough challenge in managing the rapid process of urbanization and the growth of its cities and as result infrastructure need for growing population. Pressures of rapid growth and years of neglect have severely stressed the condition of Odisha’s cities and towns. This is evident in the innumerable challenges facing them especially infrastructure services- large areas lacking serviced by roads, water supply, sewerage, street light and storm water networks, inadequate health and education amenities, traffic congestion, ineffective and inadequate public transportation systems, unregulated and chaotic growth, housing for all class of people.

The Need to Effectively Manage New Growth
To manage the transformation of Odisha’s cities and towns and effectively manage new growth requires effective planning protocols, processes, and institutions underpinned by effective legislation with public participation. To effectively manage the new growth, a land being limited in nature can be rationally utilized as resources for the provision of infrastructure and generating financial resources for urban local bodies, corporations, and urban development authorities. As a land being privately owned, public participation and partnership is equally important to win the confidence of the community/private land owners so that trust and commitment can be guaranteed. 

Approaches to Managing New Growth through community Participation: The Town Planning Scheme model under the Provision of Odisha Development Authorities Act : 1982, Rules : 1983, & OTP & IT Act : 1956.
There have been, by and large, two approaches to manage growth globally. The first approach is to acquire large portions of land and then re plan them in a desirable or appropriate manner. This is referred to as the “land acquisition” method, which is backed by Act-1894. Most states in India use the method of bulk Land Acquisition. In this method land is acquired in bulk under the Land Acquisition Act and compensation is paid to the land owners on the basis of prevailing price. Development of State Capitals like Chandigarh in Punjab and Gandhinagar in Gujarat are examples in implementation of Urban Plans and Urban designs. The second approach, “Land pooling & readjustments”. By pooling privately-Government owned lands required for preparing roads and sites for socio-economic infrastructure at the micro level development (called Town Planning Schemes). Popularly practised and successfully implemented in Gujarat for last 100 years. In India, majority of the states have got Town Planning Legislation for Preparation of Comprehensive Development Plan (CDP) at a macro level & few states have got Legislation for the preparation of Town Planning Schemes (TPS), Odisha has got above both the provision of preparing CDP & Town Planning Scheme under the statutes. 

Urban Planning Process in Bhubaneshwar-Odisha.
Odisha has a fairly good and robust legislative framework for urban planning as compared to other states in India. This is, the Odisha Development Authorities Act : 1982, Rules : 1983, & OTP & IT Act : 1956. Urban planning in Odisha is a two-step process and is prescribed in the Act. 

The first step is to prepare a “Comprehensive Development Plan”-Macro Plan (CDP) for the entire city or development area. It is a macro strategic plan document that defines the direction of growth and envisions the citywide infrastructure for the entire development area. It is a comprehensive document that looks at all components of development and makes specific proposals with respect to land use Zoning, Road network and transportation, Water supply, Sewerage, Storm water drainage, Open spaces, green areas, Environment and pollution control, Reclamation of areas for the period of 10-20 years horizon. Once, the CDP is prepared it is difficult implement due to Town Planning scheme is not practiced at micro/implementation level. Reason being land required for various physical, social and economic infrastructure is not easily available except acquired, in addition; some of the land owners will have to contribute their complete land and they get not benefit, whereas, land owners not contributing any land for various public purposes enjoys the benefits. So this mechanism doesn’t create win-win situation. Due to above reason, Implementation of underground sewerage in City and state remained big road block since decades. Since, Bhubaneshwar city – Odisha state has not practiced preparation of Town Planning scheme in the past, it has become extremely difficult for competent authorities to monitor, manage, and implement various schemes beneficial to people and as a result unauthorized and haphazard development takes place.

The second step is to prepare “Town Planning Schemes” –Micro Plan/sector plan (TP Scheme) for smaller portions of the development area by incorporating the Development Plan proposal prepared at macro level which is also knowns as “Land Pooling and readjustment”.

In this method, Lands are pooled only to the extent of requirement of road network and sites for physical, socio-economic infrastructure. Fiscal requirement for pooling will be comparatively low and in addition this cost is so adjusted against the betterment levy on the land owners as would make it zero or negligible. Land owners are allotted back a substantial portion of their original holding in a planned manner with provision of socio-economic and physical infrastructure.

Looking to the distresses involved in land acquisition like dispossession of land rights, compensation, and initial expenditure involved for government to acquire land, lengthy & cumbersome process, litigation etc.

On the other end, Preparation and implementation of Town Planning Schemes under the Odisha Development Authorities Act : 1982, Rules : 1983, & OTP & IT Act : 1956 are preferred to such implementation by taking recourse to Land Acquisition Act 1894. Gist of this technique is as follows:

  • To direct & promote development on the high demand areas
  • The allotment or allocation of land for public purpose of all kinds
    • Roads, traffic & transportation
    • Housing schemes for all class of people,
    • Industrial and commercial uses
    • Open spaces, gardens, recreation grounds, green belts
    • Public uses like school, markets, dispensary , Post Office, Police Station
    • Govt. & Semi Govt.
    • Public Utilities
    • Agriculture & water bodies
    • Any other use of national importance / interest
    • Extensive public participation through series of consultative meetings in a rational, equitable and democratic way.
  • Idea is to provide Serviced land prior to the development takes place.
  • Approval of building plans would be faster, precise and hassle-free for all
  • Constitutionally valid piece of legislation and at the same time it doesn’t violate the constitutional rights of individuals.
  • It is the Social act, frame for the welfare of the society
  • It provides the ample support to meet with the cost of scheme including cost of infrastructure and cost of compensation paid to the land owners for offering portion of their land
  • Classic and proven example of public participation and partnership model.


It is quite evident that the land pooling and readjustment method i.e Town Planning Scheme is far more equitable, rationale and democratic when compared to the method of bulk land acquisition.
This has worked extremely successfully and has many crucial lessons to offer to not only other parts of India but globally, how land can be utilized as resources for the provision of infrastructure and generating financial resources for urban local bodies, corporations, and urban development authorities through public participation and partnership, where; Government acts as facilitator/Service Provider and not as a developer.
The CDP is a broad-brush development vision for the city—a dynamic document which then is detailed gradually. Most importantly, the new areas for growth to be opened up for development are clearly marked and divided into smaller areas. The TPS are micro plans prepared for about 100 to 500 acres typically involving 500 to 2000 numbers of plots.

Planning & Implementation of Town Planning Schemes in Bhubaneshwar
 
Most of Bhubaneshwar and several portion of Odisha have been planned, developed using the CDP & Area Planning/Township mechanism. BDA has identified an area having growth potential and is under potency for development and surrounded by various housing project by Tata & Trident Group with close connectivity of National Highway, Connectivity and enclosure of part of ring road. Area Covers part Mouzas of Paikarapur, Sijuput, Naragoda, Sahajpur covering approximately 1660 Plot numbers and Town Planning scheme Area close to 750 acres which is open/green field. 


 
 

Decent connectivity with major & other district roads together with facilities like health, education, parks, markets and water bodies is available in close vicinity and all other socio-economic infrastructure will be developed using the Town Planning scheme mechanism. The Town Planning scheme has tremendous potential that needs to be demonstrated effectively to the community involved in the public & private sectors. This will considerably strengthen the development process as it takes in to considerations trust, public consultation & participation, exchange of Information in transparent way.

Bhubaneshwar Development Authority in his Authority meeting held on 25.03.2015 has passed a resolution vide No : 43/128 to prepare & implementation Town Planning scheme No : 01/2015 for Mouzas ( Part) Paikarapur, Sijuput, Naragoda, Sahajpur. Once the said scheme is notified is Government Gazette, BDA will kept it open for public viewing at BDA office and will make arrangement at prominent places of included Mouzas for explaining the benefits of it. As per normal practice, Land is deducted to the tune of about 50 % but being the first initiative by BDA, it is decided to deduct land to the tune of 40 %, so as to make it acceptable and creating victorious situation for all.

The Town Planning scheme thus prepared would be planned in such a way so as to have

1. Sector of 1.00 km x 0.75 km (0.75 Sq. Km). - Optimal walk able distance to reach the nearest public transport node.
2. Existing water bodies will be retained and surrounding area to will be proposed to be developed into recreational space for public use.
3. Hierarchy of roads will be maintained as per CDP as much as possible and public purpose plots will be demarcated at strategic locations to benefit citizens.
4. Road network and pedestrian network will be planned, in such way that it is becomes an acceptable walk able distance for commuters, thus reducing fuel consumption / reducing pollution.
5. Connectivity with adjoining areas, existing settlements would be planned.
6. By and large, a CDP proposal will be incorporated in planning proposal of Town Planning Scheme..
7. Existing Scenario of Bhubaneshwar and other towns of Odisha – Positive & Negatives would also be considered as learning lessons.
8. Planned Model Towns would also be considered as a Case Study and adopting best practiced as aligned with local condition.
9. All the final plots will have access to Roads, infrastructure and neighborhood facilities.
This will help in speedy transfer of lands for roads to the appropriate authorities to facilitate laying of infrastructure, preparation of realistic estimates for cost of works which are required to be executed in the TP scheme area, so as to make town planning schemes more or less self-finance It is therefore very pertinent to mention Town Planning Scheme, which would materially help finalizing the draft TP scheme and thereby bring about the results of planned development.

Benefits of Town Planning Scheme:

  • Supply of affordable land for development. (no acquisition, balanced zoning) , housing for urban poor, SEWSH, fire station, police station, crematorium, sports complex, swimming pool,
  • Organic growth , planned development & public participation, capacity building of ULBS, solid waste management, public awareness, guidance cell,
  • New roads including. Ring roads (outer, inner), arterial, collector, urban roads, bridges, underpass, traffic junctions, service roads, parking spaces, green spaces along roads, tree plantation, drainage, trunk sewer, sewage treatment plant, and all related facilities, i.e. Strom water drain, water supply network, raising water table through provision of percolating wells( ground water recharge system),
  • Improving environmental conditions, lake conservation and development of recreational spaces, gardens, interlinking of lakes,
  • Improving governance. (simplified DCR, clarity in far calculation, regularization, participatory approach, speedy development permission, citizen charter, computerization)
  • Mobilizing resources. (use of land as resources, TDR, extra far,
Paybacks from TPS Mechanism
From case study of Gujarat, it clearly shows that provision of infrastructure cost can be easily recovered by taking a route of Town Planning scheme mechanism by way of soliciting public participation and partnership. The whole process takes in to considerations route of commitment building process that creates base for win-win situation for community and Authority. Land pooling and readjustment coupled with cost recovery in the form of contribution from beneficiaries is thus extensively being used in number of countries (Australia, Taiwan, Korea etc.). Urban economists acclaim it as very efficient tool for urban land management. Its special, features are - national achievement to gain control over extensive areas, readjustment of land boundaries, procurement of public sites “without tears" and cost recovery from beneficiaries resulting into development with little cost to the local authority.



 
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